Ornamental-deciduous flowering shrub Plumeria, or frangipani, is related to the Kutrovye family. Such a spectacular plant is suitable for indoor cultivation. It has a very fast growth (about 0.4 m per year) and if you do not trim the top on time, then the height of the bush can exceed 200 cm.
Such a tall perennial is decorated with leathery to the touch leaf plates of a dark green hue. During flowering, spectacular flowers open on it, reaching up to 10 centimeters in diameter. Indoor plumeria blooms from early to mid-July and fades in mid-October. In natural conditions, flowers adorn this plant throughout almost the entire year. Native to plumeria from North America. Moreover, in the wild, it can be found in Thailand, Puerto Rico, the Lesser Antilles, and also in India.
This shrub was named after Charles Plumier, who was a famous French biologist. He studied the growth conditions of various plants.
Table of Contents
- Almost all species belonging to the Kutrovy family are poisonous. And plumeria is no exception. If its juice gets on an open area of the skin, this can cause severe irritation. In this regard, you need to work with the shrub, protecting your hands with gloves.
- Outwardly, this plant is very attractive. It has beautiful foliage and flowers. Plumeria also helps purify indoor air.
- In Thailand, this shrub is believed to have magical powers. It is widely used for rituals, while it is believed that it can bestow immortality, as well as attract happiness and good luck.
Brief description of cultivation
- Temperature. In the summer – not higher than 30 degrees, and in the winter – not lower than 16 degrees.
- Air humidity. Should be high. The foliage should be regularly moistened with a sprayer.
- Illumination. A bright light is needed at any time of the year.
- Watering. In winter, the plant needs occasional watering, but the earthen lump should not dry out completely. In the warm season, the substrate is moistened abundantly. See the best water for indoor plants.
- Soil mixture. Universal soil mixture for ornamental indoor crops. To prepare the substrate, combine humus, peat, leafy and sod soil (2: 1: 1: 2).
- Fertilizer. In the spring and summer periods, they are fed with a mineral complex in liquid form. Take ½ part of the dosage recommended by the manufacturer.
- Transplant. Young bushes – once a year, and older specimens – once every 2.5 years.
- Reproduction. By cuttings and seed method.
- Features of care. In winter, the plant should be provided with rest. With the onset of spring, it is necessary to resort to the gradual accustoming of the bush to bright sunlight. Regular formative pruning is needed. In the summer, the flower can be transferred to fresh air.
Plumeria care at home
Home plumeria is a rather capricious plant, demanding to care for. She needs to create the most suitable conditions for growth and development.
During flowering, the bush is decorated with spectacular unusual flowers. The plant blooms in early July, while flowering lasts until mid-autumn. During this period, relatively large and dense flowers that are five-petal can be seen on young stems. They are incredibly beautiful and look the same, so it’s hard to believe that this beauty was not created by human hands.
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Very delicate cute flowers can be painted in different shades: cream, yellow, snow-white, or pink. There are also variegated plants. Colors pass from one tone to another incredibly smoothly, as if the flowers were painted by a skilled craftsman. They have a pleasant almond aroma. When the bush fades, dark-colored pods form in place of the flowers, inside which there are seeds.
Because of what does not bloom
It happens that plumeria pleases with its lush foliage, but does not form flowers. This can happen for the following reasons:
- in winter, the plant was not provided with a dormant period or the room was excessively warm;
- the bush suffers from a lack of light or due to too low air temperature;
- the growth point was deepened during transplantation;
- to grow the shrub, seeds were taken from a hybrid plant.
In most cases, a change in conditions of detention contributes to the fact that the bush begins to bloom.
Frangipani is a thermophilic plant. For the bush to grow and develop within normal limits, it is necessary to provide it with the correct temperature regime. In the summer, the plant feels most comfortable at a temperature of 27 to 30 degrees, but in this case, it is necessary to regularly ventilate the room. Remember that the bush reacts extremely negatively to a draft, and it should not be placed near the air conditioner.
With the onset of the autumn period, they resort to a gradual decrease in the air temperature in the room. In order for the wintering to go well, the air temperature in the room should be within 16-18 degrees.
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Since plumeria naturally grows in the tropics, it needs high humidity. Therefore, it is rather difficult for her to be in a room with dry air. This problem is especially acute in the winter when the air is dry by heating devices. That is why the bush needs frequent systematic moistening from a spray bottle.
To moisten the foliage, use slightly warm water, which must first be passed through a filter. Only foliage is moistened, as well as the air around the plant. Make sure that no water gets on the flowers. To avoid sunburn, the plumeria should be shaded after spraying.
You can also increase the level of humidity by placing the flower pot in a deep tray filled with damp pebbles. In cloudy and cold weather, spraying is not carried out.
For the bush to grow normally and bloom effectively for a long time, it needs to correctly organize the lighting. The plant prefers bright sunlight. For long-lasting, spectacular bloom, it should be provided with good lighting throughout the year.
The plant is placed near the south window, but at noon it will need shading. In the autumn-winter period, the daylight hours become noticeably shorter, so plumeria provides additional illumination. If everything is done correctly, then the plant will be able to lay flower buds in the winter months, and in the summer – to please with lush flowering.
Although plumeria is a moisture-loving crop, watering should be treated with great care. In no case do not allow stagnation of water in the soil mixture, as this can destroy the shrub. Moisten the soil mixture in a pot only after its surface has dried.
In the summer, the bush is provided with more frequent and plentiful watering. During the winter months, it is carried out less frequently, while the volume of water is reduced. In no case do not allow the earthen coma to dry out in the pot. Remember that over-watering during a cold winter can lead to rot on the root system.
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After some time after watering, drain the excess water that has drained into the pan. This must be done. Water the plant with slightly warm and well-settled water. To reduce moisture evaporation, the surface of the soil mixture is covered with a layer of mulch.
Since the plumeria’s rhizome is very developed and powerful, a deep pot must be used for planting it. When transplanting a bush, the container is replaced with a new one, while its volume should be 2 times larger than that of the old one. The higher the bush, the deeper the pot is chosen for it.
Whichever container you choose, it must be stable. It should also be remembered that the root system should be quite close in it, as this helps to stimulate flowering.
To prepare the soil mixture yourself, you need to combine peat, hummus, leafy and sod soil (1: 1: 1: 2). In a specialized store, you can buy a ready-made soil mixture for ornamental crops.
If necessary, at home, you can improve the drainage properties of the soil mixture. To do this, a small amount of foam balls, brick chips, or vermiculite is poured into it.
The shrubs are fed in the spring and summer, that is, throughout the entire growing season. For this, a mineral complex with a high content of phosphorus and potassium is used. These elements are necessary for plumeria for abundant flowering and development within normal limits.
The plant also needs nitrogen, but only in small quantities. If there is an excessive amount of nitrogen in the soil mixture, then this can destroy the bush. For feeding, it is recommended to choose a fertilizer in liquid form, while you need to use ½ part of the dosage recommended by the manufacturer. Both root and leaf dressing are carried out 1 time in 12 days and only after watering in the evening. After feeding the shrub, partial shade should be provided. In the autumn-winter period, the plant does not need fertilizers.
Transplanting is very important for plumeria, so it must be carried out systematically and on time. While the bush is young, it is transplanted annually. But sometimes you have to carry out this procedure several times throughout the year if the roots are getting cramped in the pot. An adult plant is transplanted less often, or rather, once every 2.5 years. As a rule, the bush needs just that long for its roots to fill the pot.
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A deeper and wider pot is used for transplanting compared to the old one. The drainage layer in the new pot is made thicker, and the substrate is completely replaced with fresh soil, which should be loose and fertile. After the shrub becomes very large, its transplants are stopped, since its roots can be severely damaged during the procedure. Instead, the top layer of the soil mixture is replaced annually in the pot with fresh substrate.
The transplanted plant needs abundant watering. It is shaded for several days from the direct rays of the sun. Topdressing is not carried out for 3 weeks.
For the crown of the plant to be neat and effective, it needs regular formative pruning. In the last days of February, all injured and extended branches, as well as darkened leaf plates, should be pruned. If it is necessary to stop the growth of plumeria, then the top of it should be cut off. Remember that pruning does not stimulate branching, it can only adjust the length of the shoots.
To stimulate the formation of new branches, it is recommended to use a special selection paste. If discreet pruning is carried out regularly over several years, it will help form a lush, spectacular crown.
Remember not to prune dwarf species!
As soon as the domestic plumeria fades, it begins a dormant period. The lower leaf plates on the bush fly around, and there is also a suspension of all life processes. At this time, the bush is transferred to a cooler place (from 14 to 16 degrees), while the air humidity should be increased. Do not allow the earthen feed in the pot to dry out, there should also be no stagnation of liquid, otherwise, this can lead to the death of the bush.
The gradual removal of plumeria from a state of dormancy begins in the last days of February. To do this, the frequency of watering is gradually increased, the bush is transferred to heat, and they begin to feed it. Remember that the plant must be accustomed to the bright spring rays of the sun as gradually.
Growing from seeds
Quite often, plumeria is grown at home from seeds. Prepare individual cups, in each of which you need to plant one seed, and they are laid with their wings up. Cover crops from above with glass or foil and transfer them to a warm place.
When 2 true leaf plates appear on the seedling, the shelter will need to be removed. When several days remain before the seedlings are planted in permanent pots, it will be necessary to fertilize with nitrogen fertilizer. The transplant is carried out carefully, try to keep the earthen lump intact.
As cuttings, you can use the pieces of branches left after pruning. The length of the cuttings should not exceed 20 centimeters, while the lower cut should be oblique, and the uppercut straight. All leaf plates must be cut. Use a cotton swab to remove any juice drops that appear on the cut sites. Then the cuttings are left to dry in the open air. Next, the cuttings are planted in moistened soil, on top they should be covered with a film.
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For rooting, cuttings are removed in a warm place, where they will stay for about 10 weeks. If rooting is successful, then young leaves will appear on the handle. Plumeria grown from seed will begin to bloom at about 6 years of growth and form from a cutting – after 2 years.
Weakened by improper care, plumeria is often sick and affected by pests. Most often, problems arise with it such as:
- The formed buds do not open. The bush stands in the cold. Move it to a warm place, while in winter you can use a warm and soft cloth to insulate its root system.
- Pulling shoots. Too poor lighting.
- Fly around the foliage. This is a completely natural process when the bush prepares for a dormant period.
- Slow growth, wilting. The plant experiences an acute lack of moisture.
- Rot on the root system. Moisture stagnates in the substrate with too much watering. Cut out any damaged areas and then sprinkle all the roots with chopped charcoal. Plant the plant in fresh potting soil.
- Pests. Most often, scabies, spider mites, and mealybugs settle on the bush.
Types of plumeria with photo
Most often, 2 types of plumeria are grown at home:
Red Plumeria (Plumeria rubra)
A tall tree is decorated with bright green ovoid leaf plates. In diameter, they reach at least 5 centimeters. The saturation of the red hue directly depends on the air temperature in the room and the age of the plant. In an adult bush, the color is less saturated. The warmer it is in the room, the more intense the color of the foliage.
White plumeria (Plumeria alba)
The vigorous shrub is decorated with large snow-white flowers, as well as dense leaf plates of emerald color. The velvety flowers have a pleasant almond aroma.
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